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For example, we could tell you about a study that says that everyone needs to get eight hours sleep a night and for every hour one is sleep deprived (every hour below 8) one's IQ falls one point.You might decide that you would like to read that study, too, but we didn't provide citations so you don't know where to find it.The smoother your prose, the easier it is to read the paper and follow the argument.
While the summaries you will incorporate into research papers are not usually as long as formal summary papers, you will use similar strategies when you write them, and you must avoid similar dangers.
You might find yourself summarizing an argument so that you can respond to it, summarizing other researchers' findings, or summarizing events.
As we have already explained, in college-level research papers, as in published papers, it is unacceptable to put large chunks of other people's prose into your own words without citing them.
Nor can you take sentences, substitute a few synonyms and call them summaries.
At the end of this chapter we describe five different guidelines (style sheets) for citing material.
A great many others are also used in academic writing, e.g., The Chicago Style Manual or the style known as "Turabian" after Kate Turabian, the author of A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations.
If you feel frustrated now, that's how other scholars feel when you don't cite sources!
Although each academic discipline has a different way of citing paraphrases, summaries, and quotations, the underlying principle is the same.
The writer will use the arguments of other Internet users to support the thesis that censorship or restrictions will undermine the power of the Internet.
If you can summarize and paraphrase effectively, you will be able to use the information you discovered in your research to support your thesis.