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Language as Symbolic Action: Essays on Life, Literature, and Method. We’ll learn how to make a Works Cited page in a bit, but right now it’s important to know that parenthetical citations and Works Cited pages allow readers to know which sources you consulted in writing your essay, so that they can either verify your interpretation of the sources or use them in their own scholarly work. If the writer of the piece is different from the author of the complete work, then write the full name of the complete work’s author after the word “By.” For example: Duncan, Hugh Dalziel.
MLA Style is typically reserved for writers and students preparing manuscripts in various humanities disciplines such as: English Studies – Language and Literature Foreign Language and Literatures Literary Criticism Comparative Literature Cultural Studies GENERAL FORMAT MLA style specifies guidelines for formatting manuscripts and using the English language in writing. An Editorial & Letter to the Editor Cite as you would any article in a periodical, but include the designators “Editorial” or “Letter” to identify the type of work it is. It is good practice to print or save Web pages or, better, using a program like Adobe Acrobat, to keep your own copies for future reference. If you are drawing on a blog as a source, make sure you consider the credibility of the weblog site and/or the author of the posting or comment. If possible, include the archive address for the posted entry as the URL in your citation as you would for an online forum.
MLA style also provides writers with a system for referencing their sources through parenthetical citation in their essays and Works Cited pages. Most Web browsers will include URL/electronic address information when you print, which makes later reference easy. If the listserv does not have an open archive, or an archive that is open to subscribers only (e.g., a password-protected list archive), give the URL for the membership or subscription page of the listserv. Also, check with your instructor or editor to see what their stance is on incorporating evidence from blog entries. If the site doesn’t have a public archive, follow the suggestion under “Listserv” citation above.
If you are asked to use MLA format, be sure to consult the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers (6th edition). When writing in electronic formats, be sure to properly encode your carets. First, you must include volume and issue information, when available. “Title of the message (if any).” E-mail to person’s name. This same format may be used for personal interviews or personal letters. MLA style capitalizes the E in E-mail, and separates E and mail with a hyphen.
Publishing scholars and graduate students should also consult the MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing (2nd edition). Basic Style for Citations of Electronic Sources Here are some common features you should try and find before citing electronic sources in MLA style. Long URLs URLs that won’t fit on one line of your Works Cited list should be broken at slashes, when possible. Also, some electronic journals and magazines provide paragraph or page numbers; again, include them if available. “Investigating Disease Outbreaks Under a Protocol to the Biological and Toxin Weapons Convention.” Emerging Infectious Diseases 6.6 (2000): 33 pars. An Article from an Electronic Subscription Service When citing material accessed via an electronic subscription service (e.g., a database or online collection your library subscribes to), cite the relevant publication information as you would for a periodical (author, article title, periodical title, and volume, date, and page number information) followed by the name of the database or subscription collection, the name of the library through which you accessed the content, including the library’s city and state, plus date of access. These do not have titles, and the description should be appropriate. E-mail Communication Between Two Parties, Not Including the Author Neyhart, David.
• Set the margins of your document to 1 inch on all sides. If there is more than one edition available for that date (as in an early and late edition of a newspaper), identify the edition following the date (e.g., , late ed.). “New Health Center Targets County’s Uninsured Patients.” Washington Post : LZ01. Include the complete information for the site where you found the image, including the date of access.
Indent the first line of a paragraph one half-inch (five spaces or press tab once) from the left margin. In this first example, the image was found on the Web site belonging to the work’s home museum: Goya, Francisco.
The MLA Handbook is available in most writing labs and reference libraries; it is also widely available in bookstores, libraries, and at the MLA web site. Always include as much information as is available/applicable: • Author and/or editor names • Name of the database, or title of project, book, article • Any version numbers available • Date of version, revision, or posting • Publisher information • Date you accessed the material • Electronic address, printed between carets (). Some Web sites have unusually long URLs that would be virtually impossible to retype; others use frames, so the URL appears the same for each page. Doing so helps others verify information about the images creator, where as linking directly to an image file, like a JPEG (.jpg) may make verification difficult or impossible. If a URL is available for the home page of the service, include it. Instead of “Email to John Smith,” you would have “Personal interview.” E-mail to You Kunka, Andrew.
See the Additional Resources section of this handout for a list of helpful books and sites about using MLA style. Web Sources Web sites (in MLA style, the “W” in Web is capitalized, and “Web site” or “Web sites” are written as two words) and Web pages are arguably the most commonly cited form of electronic resource today. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sometimes found in copyright statements). It is necessary to list your date of access because web postings are often updated, and information available on one date may no longer be available later. To address this problem, either refer to a site’s search URL, or provide the path to the resource from an entry page with an easier URL. For other images, cite as you would any other Web page, but make sure you’re crediting the original creator of the image. Do not include a URL to the article itself, because it is not openly accessible. “Voluntary Use of Online Lecture Notes: Correlates of Note Use and Note Use as an Alternative to Class Attendance.” Computers and Education 44 (2005): 409-21.
Always follow their guidelines.) IN-TEXT CITATIONS: THE BASICS Guidelines for referring to the works of others in your text using MLA style is covered in chapter six of the MLA Handbook and in chapter seven of the MLA Style Manual.
Both books provide extensive examples, so it’s a good idea to consult them if you want to become even more familiar with MLA guidelines or if you have a particular reference question. Your parenthetical citation will include the name of the specific edition of the Bible, followed by an abbreviation of the book and chapter:verse(s), e.g., (The New Jerusalem Bible Gen. A Government Publication Cite the author of the publication if the author is identified.