Neurotransmitters Research Papers

Neurotransmitters Research Papers-59
The communicating part of the neuron consists of the axon terminals.

The communicating part of the neuron consists of the axon terminals.As the axon reaches the end of the neuron, it branches into smaller, thin appendages with protuberances at each end (axon terminals or synaptic buttons).

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The receiving part of the cell consists of the cell body (soma) and dendrites.

Typical to most animal cells, the cell body houses the structures needed for the maintenance of the cell such as the nucleus, the mitochondria, and the ribosomes.

Within the synaptic buttons are small spherical structures called synaptic vesicles that house the neurotransmitters until they are released (see Figure 14.1).

Three main types of neurons can be classified by structure: monopolar neurons, bipolar neurons, and multipolar neurons.

Sensory neurons, or afferents, transmit sensory information from the sense organs (i.e., eyes, skin, etc.) to the central nervous system (CNS).

Contrastingly, motor neurons, or efferents, send information away from the CNS to the muscles and glands of the body.

Each oligodendrocyte can form several myelin segments on axons of many different cells.

Oligodendrocytes also provide structure and support for neurons in the CNS.

Mitochondria produce adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the fuel source for cellular activities (Thomas, 1989).

Ribosomes are small structures that translate genetic information into proteins that are used both inside and outside of the cell.


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