Notice that I have not said that a valid argument has true or false premises or a true and false conclusion. That is, if the argument is valid, then the truth of its conclusion follows from the truth of its premises. This is just one type of valid argument form, and you can learn about others in upcoming videos. Now, it could be the case that all of the premises in this argument are true, but the conclusion false. You may wonder why validity matters at all, if the truth of the premises doesn't matter.
Conversely, if the truth of the premises entails the conclusion, then the argument is valid. If the premises of the argument are true, then the conclusion must be true, in this case. This argument is also valid, just like the first argument. Note now what it means for an argument to be invalid. The truth of this conclusion, in other words, does not follow from the premises, right? This is a good question to ask, and it deserves a long discussion.
And when you notice things like that, when you distinguish between good and bad reasons for believing something, you're exercising your[br]critical thinking skills.
So critical thinking is making sure we have good reasons for our beliefs, and so one of the essential[br]skills that you learn when you're studying[br]critical thinking is how to distinguish good reasons[br]for believing something from bad reasons for believing something.
In this lesson, we're gonna[br]talk about three things. And she says to you, quite confidently, "Monty won't be at the party." You're not sure whether[br]or not to believe her, so it would be natural[br]for you to follow up by asking, "Why do you think so?
" And there are a lot of different things that she might say in response.
So it's not morally right or morally good to believe something on[br]the basis of good reasons.
Similarly, it's not morally[br]wrong, or evil, or wicked to believe something on[br]the basis of a bad reason.
Let's try an example with premises of which we don't know the truth. I'll leave you with one last example, and ask you to determine its validity or invalidity.
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