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The capabilities for heterogeneous agents are not identical and they are different among robots, where each robot has its own specialization or specific task to complete .Besides that, the physical structures of heterogeneous agents are also not identical among them (Figures 2 and 3).The applications and critical survey of the issues and direction of cooperative robots based on existing motivation have been indicated.
In order to provide efficient coordination among multi-agent robots, the selections and designs of the control architecture and communication must possess a coherent behavior with the agents.
Therefore, this paper thoroughly explains each of the key elements with related examples from previous research and followed by the issues and directions of the multi-agent robot systems.
 in 2013 (most of the reviewed papers were published from 2000 to 2013).
They presented a systematic survey and analysis of multiple mobile robot systems coordination.
Research on the multi-agent robot systems has been conducted since late 80s as it provides a more efficient and robust system compared to a single robot.
ALLIANCE  and ACTRESS  robot are among of the earliest heterogeneous multi-agent robots developed by previous researchers.
Research carried out by Sugawara and Sano  and Hackwood and Beni  have proven that their homogeneous agents that have identical structures and identical capabilities can perform the task efficiently.
However, for Li and Li , the heterogeneous agents are more applicable than homogeneous agents in the real world.
There are two researchers known as Parker  and Goldberg  who compared the task coverage and interference between homogeneous and heterogeneous agents.
Parker discovered that the task coverage for homogeneous agents is maximum compared to heterogeneous.