Samantha Hindle Thesis

Efficient extraction of energy from the environment is key to the survival and reproductive success of wild animals.Understanding the ratio of energy gained to energy spent of different foraging strategies (i.e., foraging efficiency) can shed light on how animals cope with environmental changes and how it affects population trajectories.64 3.5.4 Comparison of flipper stroke vs Ve DBA as an index of total energy spent at sea 64 3.5.5 Conclusion .............................................................................................................

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iii Preface I designed the research protocols and conducted the field experiments described in Chapters 3 to 6, and performed all of the data analyses in all of the Chapters.

I also prepared and wrote Chapters 2 to 6 as stand-alone manuscripts for publication.

50 3.3.3 Flipper strokes ....................................................................................................... 50 3.3.4 Statistical analyses ................................................................................................. 53 3.4 Results .......................................................................................................................... 54 3.5 Discussion ..................................................................................................................... 59 3.5.1 Underwater locomotion ......................................................................................... 60 3.5.2 Full foraging trip locomotion ................................................................................

62 vi 3.5.3 Flipper stroke cost versus cost of transportation ...................................................

27 2.4.2 Time-activity budget and activity-specific energy expenditure ............................

29 2.4.3 Activity-specific DBA ........................................................................................... 32 2.4.4 Predicting energy expenditure at sea from activity-specific DBA and behaviours 33 2.5 Discussion .....................................................................................................................NFS females employed two foraging strategies with very different efficiencies (~1.4 vs ~3.0) that were associated with different foraging habitats and diet qualities.However, NFS with the more efficient strategy (3.0) undertook longer foraging trips than the other NFS (1.4) or AFS (3.4), and thus fed their pups ~20% less frequently.FORAGING STRATEGIES AND EFFICIENCIES OF LACTATING NORTHERN AND ANTARCTIC FUR SEALS: IMPLICATIONS FOR REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS by TIPHAINE JEANNIARD-DU-DOT DEUG Sciences de la Vie et de la Terre, Université de Tours, France, 1999 Licence Biologie des Organismes, Université Bordeaux 1, France, 2000 Maîtrise Biologie des Populations et Ecosystèmes, Université Bordeaux 1, France, 2001 DEA de Toxicologie Environnementale, Université de Paris V, France, 2002 M.Sc., The University of British Columbia, Canada, 2007 A DISSERTATION SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE AND POSTDOCTORAL STUDIES (Zoology) THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA (Vancouver) September 2015 © Tiphaine Jeanniard-du-Dot, 2015ii Abstract Efficient extraction of energy from the environment is key to the survival and reproductive success of wild animals.iv Table of contents Abstract ......................................................................................................................... ii Preface .......................................................................................................................... iii Table of contents ......................................................................................................... iv List of tables ................................................................................................................. x List of figures ............................................................................................................. xiii Lists of abbreviations............................................................................................... xvii Acknowledgements ................................................................................................... xix Dedication .................................................................................................................. xxi Chapter 1: General introduction ................................................................................ 1 1.1 Study species and sites.................................................................................................... 2 1.2 Methodology ................................................................................................................... 8 1.3 Research objectives and hypotheses .............................................................................11 1.4 Thesis outline ................................................................................................................ 13 Chapter 2: Accelerometers can measure total and activity-specific energy expenditure in free-ranging marine mammals only if linked to time-activity budgets ........................................................................................................................Results showed acceleration metrics were only accurate at predicting energy expended by fur seals when time-activity budgets were taken into account (i.e., time spent performing different types of activity).Foraging strategies of AFS females resulted in efficiencies of ~3.4, with more efficient females producing bigger pups at weaning that had greater chances of survival.Northern fur seal milk samples were analysed at the SGS Canada Laboratories in Burnaby, BC, Canada (Chapter 6).All the work was approved under the US NMFS permit # 14329-01, the UBC animal care permit # A10-0364 and the ethical regulations approval from the French Polar Institute (IPEV).

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