Sociobiology Essay

Sociobiology Essay-31
Nevertheless, this survey reconstructs sociobiology in its best light, according to its .

Nevertheless, this survey reconstructs sociobiology in its best light, according to its .

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This survey attempts to clarify and evaluate the aim of sociobiology to construct evolutionary explanations of human sociality.

Given that a neutral account is impossible, this entry does the next best thing.

As the above example demonstrates, sociobiologists are engaged in the construction and evaluation of theoretical models of evolutionary change and in the empirical testing of aspects of those models for particular cases.

The result is an expansion of standard Darwinian evolutionary theory (which traditionally explains morphological adaptation) to a new domain: namely, animal sociality.

The question, then, is this: Is Darwinian theory an appropriate framework for understanding human sociality?

Or ought we to adopt some kind of ‘disconnectionism,’ the view that human behavior is best studied apart from evolution?For example, evolutionary biologists have been long puzzled by cases of apparent altruism in certain animal societies: sterile workers in insect colonies, warning calls, resource sharing, and many others (see Darwin, 1859, pp. Such behaviors appear to incur a cost to the cooperating or altruistic organisms, which would seem to make them impossible to evolve by natural selection.To explain the existence of altruism, sociobiologists first articulated the conditions under which altruistic behavior might be advantageous.A second criticism concerns genetic determinism, the view that many social behaviors are genetically fixed.Critics of sociobiology often complain that its reliance on genetic determinism, especially of human behavior, provides tacit approval of the status quo.(1975) as the application of evolutionary theory to social behavior.Sociobiologists claim that many social behaviors have been shaped by natural selection for reproductive success, and they attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary histories of particular behaviors or behavioral strategies.Through this sociobiological framework various social behaviours of humans were addressed for further study, including the controversial subject of human rape (Clark, 1991).Among the supporters of this framework, none are as infamous as biologist Randy Thornhill and anthropologist Craig Palmer, who co-wrote (2000).This notorious book outlines several possible human rape adaptations, virtually all of which concern reproductive strategies.The works of such authors have been criticized by the social sciences, including feminist academics like Susan Brownmiller, who claim that rape is not about sex, but power and domination (Thompson, 2009).


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