Dodson asked her two questions: Did she like crossword puzzles, and was she engaged to be married?
S, to embark on the monumental task of starting a wartime intelligence operation from scratch—a task made all the more urgent after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
In all, about 21 Wellesley students from the class of ’42 and many more from the classes of ’43 and ’44 were summoned.
Surrender of Japan, Tokyo Bay, 2 September 1945: Japanese representatives on board USS Missouri (BB-63) during the surrender ceremonies.
Standing in front are: Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu (wearing top hat) and General Yoshijiro Umezu, Chief of the Army General Staff.
They received numbered problem sets in manila envelopes to turn in to the navy—homework assignments that had to be carefully concealed under desk blotters and quilts. WAVES was led by Mildred Mc Afee, then president of Wellesley, who took a leave of absence from the College to serve as the unit’s first director; she went on to become the first commissioned female officer in the U. Navy, ultimately reaching the rank of captain, before resuming her duties at Wellesley in 1945.
Those who passed the course were sent to Washington to begin their work with the newly established WAVES (Women Accepted for Volunteer Emergency Service), a division of the U. The code breakers of 1942, as they were called in a 2000 magazine article, joined women recruited from fellow Seven Sisters schools and other women’s colleges across the nation, as well as college-educated former schoolteachers from all over the U.Co-belligerents included Finland (1941–44), Iraq (1941), and Thailand (1942–45).There were also a number of puppet states and minor participants.6 – World War 2 is also known as The Great War, World War II, and the Second World War.The few public comments by military and government leaders praising code breaking efforts do not mention women at all.Sworn to secrecy under pain of death, and with their files classified until the late 1960s, few have come forward, and only a handful of books have been written on the subject.They worked in teams, deciphering coded Japanese and German messages 24 hours a day in three eight-hour shifts.Kurtz, who was assigned to decipher and translate German messages to and from U-boats, remembers learning about D-Day, which she experienced from the perspective of the Germans: “I was on midnight watch with a gorgeous full moon and thought, ‘No invasion tonight.’ Then the traffic started coming in with the numbers of ships, etc.In the back row, left to right (not all are visible): Rear Admiral Ichiro Yokoyama, Navy; Saburo Ota, Foreign Ministry; Katsuo Shiba, Navy, and Kaziyi Sugita, Army.(Identities those in second and third rows are from an annotated photograph in Naval Historical Center files.)7 – One of the major causes of World War 2 was that the League of Nations which was created after World War 1 was unable to intervene diplomatically to prevent the onset of the war combined with the naked aggression of Hitler-let Germany.8 – The primary leaders of the Allied Powers during World War 2 were Franklin D.Roosevelt, Winston Churchill, and Joseph Stallin.9 – The primary leaders of the Axis League were Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, and Emperor Hirohito.10 – Most estimates place the total number of deaths during World War 2 at 60 million people.They remained silent on the subject of code breaking for over 30 years.Kurtz, who noted she was told she would be shot if any leaks were traced to her, reflected 55 years later, “Never in my life since have I felt as challenged as during that period.